Through the power of genomics and epi-genomics, we are starting to see some success in patient stratification for treating cancer. However, we currently lack the necessary tools to fully process and analyse the data in many cases, such as when multiple patients’ phenotype data does not correspond to shared genome level mutations. How can we improve our data and what next steps do we need in clinical informatics?

Erez Levanon
Associate Professor at The Mina and Everard Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University Ramat Gan, Israel

RNA Editing - Common, Hidden Cancer Mutations
RNA editing alters the mRNA sequence from its genomic blueprint in a dynamic and flexible way. We show that A-to-I editing and the enzymes mediating this modification are significantly altered, usually elevated, in most cancer types. Increased editing activity is found to be associated with patient survival. As is the case with somatic mutations in DNA, most of these newly introduced RNA mutations are likely passengers, but a few may serve as drivers that may be novel candidates for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.

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Xiangdong Wang 
Director Shanghai Institute Clinical Bioinformatics, Fudan University Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai, China

Clinical Bioinformatics in Lung Diseases
The importance and application of clinical bioinformatics are growing 
with the development of omics-technologies. We have organized global opinion leaders to write a series of Translational Bioinformatics to address the concept and content of clinical bioinformatics. We have applied clinical bioinformatics as a tool to analyze genomic and proteomic profiles, metabolic and signaling pathways, biomarker discovery and development, human tissue bank establishment, as well as precision medicine in lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Based on clinical bioinformatics, 
we are investigating and integrating networks of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and microbiomics in chronic lung diseases to discover new disease-specific biomarkers and precision therapies. 

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Manfred Dietel
Full Professor and Director of the Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Charité, Berlin, Germany

Morpho-Molecular Pathology as Prerequisite for Precision Medicine in the Clinics
Research orientated molecular and immunological work and clinically relevant applications for the individual patient are two approaches. The representatives sometimes think in different ways. In particular, the (tumor) material used for the analyses must be carefully selected and controlled by morphology prior to serve as a basis for research or treatment decisions. Thus, it is of crucial importance that both sides of the coin understand each other. 

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